Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

(Disclaimer:  Many of the following responses include the speculations of Bruce E. Walkup based on historical fact.  As such, these responses are subject to revision as the author uncovers the ancient records and as more Y-DNA test results become available.)

The Normans (North Men) were primarily of Viking origin, descended from Duke Rollo and his Viking pirates.  The Vikings, and thus Normans, were comprised of both I1 and R1b1b2 haplogroups.  Rollo was a one time Jarl or Earl of Orkney who had been ejected from northern Norway by the King.  He landed in northern France in A.D. 911 and claimed a large section (modern Normandy France).  Once established, they quickly adopted French culture and language, and intermarried with the local population.  From the mid tenth century, this new and ambitious race ravaged all of Europe down to the tip of Sicily, quickly, thoroughly and effectively, despite (or because of) having been converted to Christianity.  The powerful land hungry Normans spread themselves thinly but with great determination and ruthlessness.  The usual retinue of the Norman knight consisted of one or two men-at-arms, clad in full armor, and several archers.

Edward III, the Confessor, King of England (1042-1066), brought over a contingent of Norman knights upon his return from exile to Normandy (his mother, Emma, was daughter of Duke Richard, 1st Duke of Normandy).  Some became responsible for reorganizing English defenses along the Welsh borders in about 1055.  Soon after, Malcolm III, Canmore, King of Scotland (1058-1093), invited some of these knights (and other Normans living in France and Hungary) up to live in Scotland to defend against his enemies (for the list see here).  Those enemies being Harold, Earl of East Anglia and Wessex (soon to be King Harold II of England), and his brother, Tostig, Earl of Northumbria.  This was upon Canmore’s return from exile to England.  These knights had befriended him and Prince Edgar Athling (brother of his future wife, Margaret).  Upon their arrival, these knights were granted titles and much land.  This may explain how several of the Scots-Norman families came into being, including the Wauchopes.  Canmore first successfully invaded Northern England in 1061, and in a string of subsequent invasions took much land and many English captives.  This France > England > Scotland scenario is further bolstered by the belief that many families that have Wheat Garbs in their shields (such as the Wauchopes) originated as vassals of the Earl of Chester, who at this time controlled the northern Welsh/English border region.  Another thought is that the Wauchope shield is simply derived from that of their powerful and close associates, the Cummin’s, that being “Azure, three garbs Or.?/strong>

One plausible theory is that some Wauchopes originated from the Baa or Baugh family of the village of Bahais just north of the present-day city of St.-L? Normandy, France, in the diocese of Coutances.  However, no close Y-DNA matches have thus far been uncovered via the Baugh or Wauchope Family Tree DNA projects.  Most of the Vikings that settled this region arrived from Denmark.  The Baa family may have been a feudal tenant of the very powerful Brus/Bruce family of the nearby Castle of Brix.  The castleward of Brix was only about 30 miles away from Bahais.  The Bruces of Normandy were the progenitors of Scottish King Robert the Bruce.  Adam de Brus was known to hold lands in Scotland about 1062, and was also a companion of William the Conqueror at Hastings in 1066.  Also in support of this possible relationship between the two families, the Castleward of Brix shield consists of three mullets, as does all major lines of the Baugh family found in the United Kingdom.  However, there is also a striking resemblance between one of the Lindsay shields and the Baugh shields, so these similarities may only be a coincidence.  As stated above, English King Edward III, the Confessor, may have invited the family (likely a younger son who was not apt to inherent the family estate in Normandy) to England to help stiffen the Welsh border defenses in about 1055.  The Baugh name saw its first appearance in Denbighshire of northern Wales.  (The Baughs of Gloucestershire apparently owe their existence to the Earls of Gloucester, who were also the proprietors of much of the area surrounding Bahais after the conquest.)  Other known spellings include Bach, Bagh, Baha, Baughe, Bawgh, Bawghe, DelaBaugh, De Le Baugh, Dillabaugh, Dillabow, Dillibaugh, and Dillibow (in French, “from the inland bay?.  King Malcolm III, Canmore, may have then invited a branch of the family to Scotland to what would soon be known as Wauchopedale of Dumfriesshire.  There it became Waugh (a common naming alteration) or Waughope by adding “hope?for a territorial style (literally, “Waugh’s Valley?which aligns with one view that the place-name may have originated from the family’s name).  With this in mind, an early pronunciation of the name would likely have been “Wah-op.?nbsp; The name Waugh and Wauchope were known to first appear in Dumfriesshire of the Scottish Borders.  In further potential support, the major branches of both the Baa/Baugh and Waugh/Wauchope families have two mullets in chief in their arms.  Warcop could then be a further corruption of the name as the family spread southward back into England, possibly during the reign of Scottish King David I, circa 1124.  In support of this, a little northward of Kirkby Stephen is the town of Warcop and Warcop Fell (Fell, as in a barren or rocky hill).  A little southward of the ruins of the Warcop’s purported Lammerside Castle are West Baugh Fell, Baugh Fell, and East Baugh Fell.

It is well known that the Bruce family was early on seated in Annandale.  The Wauchopes likely had at times held land in the area as well.  Evidence advocates that a large branch of the Wauchopes sided with the Comyns against the Bruces during the unrest of the War of Succession and Independence (1290-1328).  Recall that the Lindsays, who supported the Bruces, came into possession of the majority of Wauchopedale of Dumfriesshire in 1285.  It is not certain who held the land prior to that, perhaps the Wauchopes.  Also recall that a branch of the Wauchopes, who also held lands somewhere in southern Scotland (possibly these very lands), were said to have been driven from Leys in Aberdeenshire at about this same time.  Much of this land ended up in the hands of the Burnetts, supporters of the Bruces.  Thus, years later when the Wauchope family’s history was recorded, this onetime close relationship between the Wauchope and Bruce families possibly dating back to Normandy may have been forgotten.  In possible substantiation, the Wauchopes of Niddrie and a large number of the Bruces do seem to share the Celtic version of the R1b1b2 haplogroup, as revealed by Y-DNA testing.  This may also be the same period during which many of the earliest Wauchope charters were lost or destroyed.  It should be noted that it was not at all uncommon for different branches of the same family to support opposing sides in a conflict.  In this manner, the family would be covered no matter which side ultimately prevailed.  At this time the Wauchopes of Niddrie-Merschell were under the Keiths and the Wauchopes of Roxburghshire were under the Douglases, both of which supported the Bruces.  This is undoubtedly how both lines survived.

Just as the origins of the Wauchopes is uncertain, owing to the absence of ancient charters, so too the derivation of the name itself is uncertain.  The name does not appear to fit typical place-naming conventions of its time.  It is unclear as to whether the surname preceded the place-name, or the place-name preceded the surname.  One theory states the Wauchopes came from the independent kingdom of Strathclyde (circa A.D. 450 to 1058), which then became part of Scotland.  It was a land of Britons who spoke a Celtic language similar to Welsh.  If so,  the prefix and suffix would be expected to be of Celtic origin.  Rather, if arising from the period of the Danelaw in the late 9th century, the prefix would typically be the landowner’s name and the suffix a short description of the place.  The common Scandinavian suffixes would be -by, -thorpe, -toft, -holme (e.g., Langholm near Wauchopedale of Dumfriesshire), -kirk, -thwaite, -wick, -borough, and -ness.  Hybrid names with English suffixes were common as well, such as -ham, -ton, -ley.  In Scotland, the birth of the English type surname as distinct from the old Gaelic form of patronymic began in 1061 from the General Council at Fofar held by King Malcolm III, Canmore.  In either case scholars argue, whether Briton or Scandanavian, the Gaelic suffix of hope would be inconsistent (For more on this see the discussion below concerning the words valley and bay.).  Hereditary surnames were in use by all classes in Normandy in the middle of the eleventh century.  However, the aristocracy tended to exchange their Norman name for those of their new manors.  The Baa family retained the same name upon arriving to England from Normandy.

A few miles to the southeast of Langholm on the English side of the border are several similarly named physical features which may hold a clue as to the true Wauchope name origin, these being:  Kershope Burn, Kershopefoot, and Kershope Forest.  Evidently a branch of the Norman family Espec, taking on the name Kerr (i.e., marsh dweller) from their lands in northern England, settled in the Scottish Borders region prior to 1249.  The 1897 Ordnance Survey of Scotland shows a village of Waughslea (Lea, as in a pasture) about 5 miles south of Langholm, along the border with England (although the village may be of a more recent origin).  One could easily believe that the name Wauchope is likewise derived.  That is Wauchope is made up of the family’s name as the prefix plus a descriptive suffix.  It is still plausible that the original Wauchope’s name was Baa.  Seemingly upon arrival to Scotland a local word (i.e., ùig or wau) was substituted for the word bay.  In any event, the name would still refer to a small landlocked bay, also known as a nook or cove.  If true, the surname and place-name of Wauchope arrived to Scotland together.

The Poteria family of La Poterie-Mathieu, Normandy, were the first recorded Norman proprietors of the ancient lands of Wallop, Hampshire, under Domesday tenant-in-chief Hugh de Montfort after Williams conquest of England in 1066.  The family apparently never did take on the estates name in England, as did a branch of the Peverels later in the thirteenth century.  The Poterias lost their English lands in 1204 for adhering to Philip Augustus (i..e., King Philip II of France, 1180-1223).  Philip II annexed much land for France (including:  Normandy, Maine, Bretagne, Anjou, Touraine, and Poitou), and warred against the English.  It is possible that a branch of the family was invited to Scotland at the time of King David I, circa 1124, taking along their English estate name of Wallop, much as the Espec family may have done later with the name Kerr.  Conceivably, this confiscation of English property may have contributed to the Scottish branch “forgetting?their origins.  In support, Wallop and Wauchope are thought to have nearly identical meanings.

Another interesting, yet unproven theory, has been put forth by some of the Australian Wauchopes as decribed in Ona Butlers Wauchope Family History (circa 1990) that the Wauchopes first lived in Alsace-Lorraine prior to residing in Scotland.  The region has been intermittently part of Germany and France prior to remaining French territory after World War II.  This theory does fit in with the tradition of the Wauchopes having come from France.  However, it is known that several Wauchopes from Scotland were in the service of French King Louis XI during the mid fifteenth century, and were granted letters of naturalization.

Thrace was an ancient Balkan land of southeastern Europe encompassing parts of modern-day Bulgaria, northern Greece, and European Turkey.  (Not realizing its significance until much later, the author traveled the road from Sofia, Bulgaria to Thessalonica, Greece, during a mission trip in August 2004.)  The warlike Thracians populated this area as late as circa 1900 B.C.  Especially south of the Jirecek Line, they were largely comprised of the E1b1b1a1b (E-V13) Mediterranean haplogroup, whose ancestors, according to the archeological evidence, most likely migrated to the region of Thessaly in east-central Greece from northeastern Africa by way of the Levant (eastern coastal region of the Mediterranean).  Ancient historians referred to these pre-Greek peoples generally as Pelasgians (although Proto-Balkan may technically be a better description).  They appear to be the best fit with the Y-DNA test results.  (For instance, the author is only one step from the Thracian 12 Marker modal and exactly matches the Greek Colonization Signal.)  The tribal areas of Thrace were thought to have at one time extended even further into what is now Greece, Asiatic Turkey, Macedonia, Serbia, Romania and Ukraine.  By the fifth century B.C. the Greek historian Herodotus called them the second-most numerous people in the part of the world known by him (i.e., after India), and potentially the most powerful, if not for their disunity.  He noted their philosophy seemed to be ?/span>To live by war and plunder is of all things the most glorious.?/span>  They accompanied Alexander the Great on his conquests 336-323 B.C., providing up to a third of the Macedonian army’s cavalry and a fifth of their infantry.  They eventually became Hellenized (i.e., adopted Greek culture).  

The client state of Thrace was peaceably annexed by Rome as Thracia in A.D. 46.  The Romans heavily recruited (especially cavalry and archers) from the new province for the conquest of Britain, which began in earnest in A.D. 43 (with occupation ending about A.D. 450).  A few troops were even raised prior to this when Thrace was a client kingdom (many were sent to Spain).  The Thracians contributed up to 20,000 troops at any one time to auxiliary units during the early empire period.  Britannia governor Agricola began the invasion of Caledonia (Scotland) in A.D. 79.  According to the Roman historian Tacitus, by the fourth summer of the campaign the area to the south of the Firths of Clyde and Forth (i.e., southern Lowlands) was safely in Roman hands.  Agricolas desire was to subdue all of Britain and Ireland, but he did not have the support of Rome due to the advent of the war in Dacia (mostly made up of modern-day Romania and Moldova).  After 25 years of service, these recruits were granted Roman citizenship upon retirement, would marry a local girl and be expected to remain in the vicinity of their station to help Romanize the countryside.  Less than 20% of diplomata (documents issued to retiring soldiers) recipients moved out of the province in which they had served upon retirement, although only about half of such soldiers lived beyond their term of service, and the Thracians tended to return to their home territory more so than others.  Of those staying, all their children were granted citizenship, and their sons were highly prized and heavily recruited for military service.

In 1950, a palisaded Roman fort was rediscovered at Broomholm about 2 miles south of the mouth of the Wauchope Water in Wauchopedale, Dumfriesshire, Scotland.  Its first incarnation occupied 4 ?acres and was probably sized for an unattested auxiliary regiment of about 500 soldiers.  It was likely active from about A.D. 85 to 100 (see map here).  South Gaulish pottery has been recovered there from this period (remnants found today in western France, northern Spain and Britain).  The fort was succeeded by a smaller fortlet of 2 acres, debatably either during the Hadriatic period A.D. 120s or during the Antonine period A.D. 140s (see map here).  The site was finally incorporated into the settlement.  More recently it has been said that the fort and settlement was known as Croucingo to the Romans.  Only about 20 miles to the south (just south of Hadrians Wall) the Romano-British town of Luguvalos (modern day Carlisle) was known as a flourishing center for trade, relaxation, and retirement.  Both Greek and Latin inscriptions have been found there, indicating that it was fairly cosmopolitan.  

Several Thracian regiments were known to have existed in Britain about this time, as follows:  

  • The part-mounted auxiliary infantry regiment Cohors Primae Thracum (The First Cohort of Thracians) began its service very early in Britannia stationed at the Wroxeter auxiliary fort in about A.D. 47 located just to the south of the legionary fortress of Viroconium in west central England which housed the XIV Gemina.  The regiment was known to have been involved in the building of Hadrians Wall just 20 miles south of Broomholm during the A.D. 120s.  It was later based for a time (circa A.D. 205-208) at the Birdoswald fort along the west end of the wall, known as Camboglans to the Romans.  This general area coincides with an E-V13 cluster as identified by Steven Bird.  The Vindolanda Tablets written about that time recorded that auxiliary units could be simultaneously dispatched at multiple nearby locations.  A soldier from this regiment would appear to be a likely candidate for the source of the Walkup/Wachob ancestor (includes descendants of immigrants Samuel and Nancy Wauchope of Ulster).  
  • The auxiliary cavalry regiment Ala Gallorum et Thracum Classiana civium Romanorum (The Classian Wing of the Gauls and Thracians) was mentioned only on military diplomata dated to the early second century A.D.  The garrison post(s) of this unit remains unknown.  Typically two cavalry wings were assigned to escort a particular legion.  The VI Victrix helped build Hadrians Wall about this time and was stationed at the fortress at York, known as Eboracum to the Romans.  It replaced the IX Hispana there in A.D. 122.  Possibly the auxiliary regiment was assigned to one of them.
  • The 500 man part-mounted auxiliary infantry regiment Cohors Secundae Thracum (The Second Cohort of Thracians) was said to probably be stationed farther north in the largest Antonine Wall fort at Mumrills during the middle of the second century.  It was later attested along the Cumbrian coast at Moresby during the late-fourth century A.D.  This regimental placement most likely also coincides with the E-V13 cluster identified above.
  • The Ala Primae Thracum (The First Wing of Thracians) was early posted to Germany about A.D. 30, then was found in Gloucester, England.  It was probably held in reserve in South Wales during the A.D. 70’s, where it would be assigned to the II Augusta legion at the Isca Augusta fortress at Caerleon.  By the mid-second century it was reassigned permanently to Germany once again.  This regiment may prove to be an even more likely source for the Walkup ancestor as the closest Y-DNA match to these Walkups outside the surname so far is Ross of Germany with a common male ancestor dating to the Roman period.  This is not to say the Walkup ancestor may not have actually arisen from a citizen Roman legionary from the adjacent province of Macedonia itself.  
  • The Cohors Septimae Thracum (The Seventh Cohort of Thracians) was only mentioned on diplomataThe garrison post(s) of this unit remains unknown.  
  • The Cohors Sextae Thracum (The Sixth Cohort of Thracians) was attested at Gloucester in England.  
  • Others - No mention is made in records for the Third, Fourth, or Fifth Cohorts in Britain.  

As a less likely fallback position, a few Delmatian regiments, also comprised largely of E1b1b1a1b (E-V13), were known to have existed in Britain about this time, as follows:  

  • The Cohors Primae Delmatarum (The First Cohort of Delmatae) from what is now Croatia was attested circa A.D. 122-161 at High Rochester in Northumberland (forward of Hadrians Wall) and at Maryport in Cumbria.  
  • The Cohors Secundae Delmatarum Equitata (The Second Cohort of Delmatae) from what was recently Yugoslavia was attested during the third and fourth centuries at Caravan in Northumberland.
  • The Cohors Quartae Delmatarum (The Fourth Cohort of Delmatae) from what is now Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina and Montenegro was attested circa A.D. 103-138 at Hardknott in Cumbria.

Via ?/span>The Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) analysis of subjects with 67 markers, it has been estimated that there were about 170 or more founders originating prior to 41 B.C. making up virtually all the E1b1b1a1b (E-V13) population in the British Isles.  The total number of Romano-Balkan auxiliaries in the British Isles between conquest and A.D. 410 are given as high as 100,000 men.  About the time the Wauchope ancestor arrived to west central England/Wales or the Borders his ?/span>cousins also arrived to what is now Britain, Germany, Slovenia, and Ukraine.  This is consistent with the known dispersion of Balkan troops along the northern frontier of the Roman Empire.  The latest analysis indicates the closest match outside of the surname Walkup itself is with a test subject surnamed Ross, with paternal origins in Germany.  The common male ancestor between the two is estimated to be circa A.D. 243, which is wholly consistent with the Balkan trooper theory.  This is subject to change with more test subjects and as the science continues to develop and mature.

The Family Tree DNA Recent Ancestral Origins database clearly demonstrates that the E1b1b1a1b (E-V13) 12 Marker modal and the author overwhelmingly match origins (Genetic Distance = 0) best with test subjects from Bulgaria (encompassing former Thrace).  At Genetic Distance of 1 the author best matches subjects (in order of closeness) from Bulgaria, Greece, modern-day Slovenia (in Roman times it hosted many Thracian troops), and Serbia.  The author is at a respectable Genetic Distance of 17 from the 67 Marker modal.

Test Subject

DYS Number
















 13  10  16  18  11  12  12  13  11


The Author



 13  10  16  18  11  12  13  13  11


The author has been found to exactly match a core set of markers which coincide with haplotype groups associated with periods of Greek expansion in the Mediterranean (Zalloua and Pratt. Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2008 Nov. 17; 83(5):633-642)

Test Subject

DYS Number








The Author



 13  10  13  11


By comparing test subject results (marked in red) to the following table as developed from the R1b1b2* Project website at Family Tree DNA, they are most nearly Celtic in form rather than Anglo-Saxon or Norwegian.  These Celtic origins have been verified thus far for one Wahab test subject via further SNP testing by Family Tree DNA.

Ethnicity \ DYS# 393 390 19 391 388 392
Celtic 13 24 14 11 12 13
Anglo-Saxon 13 22 14 10 14 11
Norwegian 13 23 14 10 12 11
Note: Celtic is also known as the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH).

During the many years that the Scots and English fought over control of the Borders region, the king of Scotland would often assemble the nobility of his realm up north at Aberdeen, as the de facto capital at Dunfermline was prone to attack by the English.  So it was natural that the king’s loyal backers, including the Wauchopes, would hold property near Aberdeen along the Dee River Valley.  King Malcolm III, Canmore, held court at Deeside circa 1060.  King David I, who had been a Prince and Earl in northern England before becoming king of Scotland, made his capital in Roxburgh and first began to invite Norman knights to the Dee in earnest, circa 1124.  (This may well coincide with the rise of the Warcops in Cumbria as well).  Aberdeen was made a royal burgh in 1179.  Edinburgh was not made the official national capital until 1437.  Canmore built the first castle there (i.e., on Castle Rock, site of later Edinburgh Castle) in the 11th century.

On David Is return to Scotland from England as king in 1124 he proceeded to distribute large estates there amongst his Anglo-Norman friends, such as the Bruces, Walter Fitz-Alan (a Breton who became his high Steward, and the ancestor of the Stewarts), the Balliols, the Comyns, and many others who thus became landholders on both sides of the border.

David I also introduced into the Lowlands a feudal system of ownership, founded on a new, French speaking Anglo-Norman aristocracy.  Although they intermarried and eventually merged with the old and rapidly disappearing, Celtic aristocracy, these new Scots remained for a time partially Gaelic, save for the south and east of Scotland which now spoke a primitive form of English (Lothian English).

When David I came to the throne in 1124, Scotland had been a rather primitive country, with only small towns and little industry.  Also, depending on where you were in the Lowlands, you could have to speak Latin, French, English or a number of Gaelic dialects just in the south of Scotland.  The Scottish church with only three Bishops, had little influence.  When David I died in 1153 much had changed.  In many areas of the Lowlands, what remained of the old Celtic way of life had been swept away and a new Anglo-Norman order of things were established in its place.

The Poor Knights of Christ, also known as the Knights Templar, was established by French nobleman Hugh de Payens and eight companions in 1119 to protect Christian pilgrims to the city of Jerusalem after the First Crusade (1095-1099).  They later became a powerful political and military force in both Palestine and Europe.  Templars of only the highest rank, knight, traditionally wore a white tunic with a red Latin cross.  The grand master was responsible only to the Pope.  Templar installations were free from control of kings or bishops.  At their zenith the Templars numbered over 20,000 strong.  Pope Clement V dissolved the order in 1312, mainly due to long-standing resentment of their great power and wealth.  Most of their remaining property was transferred to their rivals, the Hospitalers, including in 1319 the 8,500 acres of Maryculter of Kincardineshire just across the Dee from the Wauchopes.  The Templars were known supporters of the Bruces in Scotland.

In 1296, all prominent Scottish landowners, churchmen and burgesses were summoned to swear allegiance to English King Edward I and sign the Ragman Rolls, including the following possible Wauchope noblemen:

  • Walghop (Walghope), Robert de (del counte de Fyf)1

  • Walghop, Robertus de (Robert de Walghop)2

  • Walghop, Thomas (tenant le Euefqe de Seint Andreu, del counte de Edeneburgh)

  • Walughton, Robert de (perfone de la Chapele de Walughton, del counte de Edeneburgh)3

  • Waugh (Walgh, Walugh) de Hep, Robert (del counte de Rokefburgh)1

  • Waugh, Dauid de (del counte de Lanark)

  • Waugh, Thomas (del counte de Pebbles)

1.  Determined to be the same Robert due to matching document seals (A mullet within a circle).
2.  Determined to be of Culter, Aberdeenshire.  May very well be the same Robert as that of Fife and Heip, Roxburghshire.  Robert was evidently Chief of the Name, and so swore allegiance for his entire family scattered across Scotland.
3.  Up through the 15th century 50% of priests were still married and accepted by the people.  Early on, noble families could donate land to establish abbeys and priories, and their younger sons and unmarried daughters could fill the roles of abbot or prioress, or become bishops.

Several plausible theories as to the surname’s meaning abound, all relying on the suffix being from the Gaelic hope (i.e., valley).  Theories for the prefix are as follows, with the first three having essentially the same meaning of a small secluded valley:

  • Scottish Gaelic ùig (i.e., nook or cove, which is wau in Celtic ) referring to a “dweller at a hill-recess.?/strong>

  • Scottish Gaelic uaimh (i.e., cave or den [pronounced as “oo-a”], wagh in Celtic).  The Scots Border name of Home or Hume is thought to be so derived.  

  • Old English wealg (i.e., warm or lukewarm) [i.e., valg-r or volg-r in Icelandic], thus signifying “a shut-in valley.?nbsp;

  • Old English walh  meaning “the valley of the foreigner,?usually referring variously to pockets of Scotsmen, Welshmen or Bretons, or English in Scotland (see  The Scots Border name of Wallace is thought to be so derived.  Perhaps in this case the foreigners being described were descended from Roman soldiers from the Balkans?

  • Scots wark (i.e., earthwork or fort).  The entire name would then signify “the valley with the fort in it.?nbsp;

  • Norse, baugr = bay (known origin of the Scottish village of Baugh, Island of Tiree, Argyll and Bute) (note use of r >> Warcop, Warcup, and Warkup?)
  • Welsh, bae = bay
  • French, baie = bay
  • Scottish Gaelic, bàgh = bay (from English bay, Romance Baja)
  • Norse, hóp = small land-locked bay (e.g., Wauchop, Waluchop, Walhopp, Walchop, Walhop, Walkop, Walkup, Waughop, Wauhop, Warcop, Warcup, and Warkup) >> Scottish Gaelic, òb = bay, creek, or harbor (e.g., Vachob, Wachob, Wahab, Walkub, Wauchob, and Wauhob)
  • Anglo-Saxon, hóp = valley
  • Scottish Gaelic, hope = valley (e.g., Waleuhope, Walchope, Walewhope, Walhope, Walghope, Wauchope, and Waughope)
  • French, vallée or val = valley (French ll pronounced as y) (note similarity in look and pronunciation with Waleu- or Walew-) (Also, previous to about 1600 in Scotland an intrusive l was a common way of designating a preceding long vowel, chiefly a or o, but not sounded.)
  • French, cal or cale = bay/cove (whence comes the port town of Calais, France << cove dweller?)
  • Romance (root of French, Italian, Spanish, etc.), baja = bay (whence comes the village of Bahais, Normandy, France << bay dweller?) (e.g., Baa, Baha, and Baugh)
  • There is no w in Scottish Gaelic
  • Scottish Gaelic, balla = wall (proven example of b >> w)
  • Norse, vík = bay or creek >> Scottish Gaelic, ùig = nook or cove (small bay), and also English suffixes -wick and -wich
  • Welsh, bach = nook
  • Scottish Gaelic, uaimh = cave or den
  • Manx Gaelic, baghey = dwell, live (note interchangeability of b, v, and w in the other words below)
  • Manx Gaelic, ard-valjagh = city dweller
  • Manx Gaelic, awinagh = abounding in rivers, fluvial, river dweller
  • Manx Gaelic, bwaagagh = cobbly, cobbled, hut-dweller
  • Manx Gaelic, ooigagh = troglodyte, cavernous, cave-dweller
  • Phonetically, v and b are nearly identical sounds.  Both are “voiced?consonants, the only difference being that b is a “labial?consonant and v a “labio-dental?consonant.  While in English we consider them different sounds, they are nearly the same in some other languages.

And from the Science of Etymology (Webster’s Dictionary):

  • Bay - any level land area making an indentation, as into a woods, range of hills, etc. [ME bai < OFr baie < ML baia, prob. < Iberian] (i.e., valley)
  • Bay - a recess in a wall, as for a window [ME bai < OFr baée < baer, bayer, to gape, yawn < VL batare, to gape] (baée is pronounced as Bahais, Normandy, France)
  • Valley - a stretch of low land lying between hills or mountains and usually having a river or stream running through it. [ME valey < OFr valee < val < L vallis, vale < IE base *wel-, to turn, roll > walk, well] (valley has the same root as walk)
  • Hope - (?) [Cf. Icel. hp a small bay or inlet.]
        1.  A sloping plain between mountain ridges. [Obs.]
        2.  A small bay; an inlet; a haven. [Scot.]
  • Cove - a sheltered nook or recess, as in cliffs; a small bay; a small valley [ME < OE cofa, cave, cell < IE *gupa, den < base *geu-, to bend, arch]
  • Nook - a small recess or secluded spot, retreat
  • Den - cave or other lair of a wild animal [ME < OE denn, lair, pasture, akin to MLowG, place where grass is trodden down, lair < IE base *dhen-, level place] (denizen = dweller)
  • Dwell - to make one’s home; reside; live [ME dwellen < OE dwellan, to lead astray, hinder, akin to ON dvelja, to delay < IE *dh(e)wel- , to obscure, make dull] (the Indo-European base words for dwell and valley both contain “wel-?
  • Dale - valley [ME < OE dael, < infl. by ON dalr, IE base *dhel-, hollow > dell]

Waugh is probably a Northumbrian or Lowland Scots name.  In these parts the gh is still sounded, either as ff, k or ch (as in Scottish loch).  Each district has its own local sound.  The au sound can be said as a short o or long aw.  The W is sometimes aspirated.  The Northumbrian pronunciation of Waugh sounds rather like “Whoauff?where the vowel is very long.  Other local names like Woof (Yorkshire) and Wark sound similar to Waugh.  There seems to be an instance of Waugh being spelt phonetically as “Waff?in one of the Whitby (N. Yorkshire coast) parish registers, c. 1800.  I have heard it pronounced “Woff?further south in Yorkshire.  In Ireland the gh in Waugh is sometimes pronounced as a soft growl in the throat, rather like an aspirated French r.  (Anonymous contribution)

In the United States, the gh is predominately silent so that Waugh rhymes with law or saw, and then also with Baugh.

It has been speculated that the name of the Wauchope’s ancient property of Wolfelee of Roxburghshire is actually a  corruption of Waughlee (Waugh pronounced like “Whoauff?above), which in turn is similar to Waughslea of Dumfriesshire mentioned earlier.  In support, Wolfelee was once known as Wolhopelee.

  • What does Wauchopedale mean then?
  • Wauch = valley
  • Hope = valley
  • Dale = valley
  • Wauchope Niddrie-Merschell shield:  Azure, a garb or, in chief two mollets of the last; and crest: a garb (i.e., wheat sheaf) proper.
    • Azure = blue < [ME & OFr bleu < Frank *blao < IE base *bhl?wos, light-colored, blue, blond, yellow] (Blond and yellow as in wheat {bl?in French}; similar to “blade?which is the leaf of a plant, especially grass. Wheat is a grass.)
    • According to heraldry - Wheat Garb or Sheaf means:  The harvest of one’s hopes has been secured. (Hope, as in Wauchope. Secured, as in a nook or cove.)
    • Wheat [ME whete< OE hwaete < IE base *kweid-, to gleam, bright, white] (gleaming bright, like a star)
    • Mollets = stars, which are luminous bodies or points of light; or a person who excels or performs brilliantly.
  • Wale - choice, selection; that chosen as best [ME wal < ON val, akin to Ger wahl, choice, a choosing:  for IE base see will] [Scot. or North Eng.] (the best, like a star performer or the best valley)

The Baughs were likely already in Wales/England in about 1055, and the Waughs/Wauchopes already in Scotland in about 1062.  The family did not need to take what it had already been freely given.  Or the surname was not adopted until much later as they became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation.

The Welsh/English border region was spottily canvassed, while Scotland was not included at all.

Prior to the time that we had surnames as we do now, only the eldest son of the nobility was entitled to use the family “name?(i.e., de Wauchope).  The other sons had to come up with their own.  That is one reason why you could get several variations of the same name which over time became separate surnames (e.g., Wauchope or Waugh).  For another twist on this, see the question immediately following this one.  You also get new surnames from the same family based on the location where they settled (e.g., Lindsay from the Toeni family of Normandy).  Another way in which new surnames come about is due to how the name was recorded on official documents.  In years past, spelling was not as important as today for record keeping (e.g., Wachob or Walkup).  For instance, the first real attempt to standardize American English spellings was Noah Webster’s dictionary first published in 1828.

Wauchope was named by Capt. Robert Andrew Wauch (1786-1866) who called his property “Wauchope.?nbsp; He simply used the original form of the family name.  His Father was Captain Robert Wauch (1761-1817), who was born on the family estate, “Niddrie Marischal,?in the immediate vicinity of Edinburgh quite close to Craigmillar Castle, famous for its association with Mary Queen of Scots.  Actually this Captain Robert Wauch’s name was originally Wauchope - the true family name - but after the death of his father, a quarrel ensued over shares of the estates, and the matter finally ended up in the Court of Scotland.  Losing the legal battle, the embittered Captain retired to his portion, Foxhall, and thenceforth dropped the “ope,? retaining the abbreviated form which he passed on to his descendants, including his son, Robert Andrew, the founder of Wauchope NSW Australia.  There it is pronounced “War-hope.?nbsp; The station of Wauchope in the Northern Territory of Australia is pronounced “Walk-up,?which is the Gaelic pronunciation.  (Contributed by Peter Coulon of Wauchope, NSW, Australia)

In a word, no.  It is evident that several aristocratic lines are related or possibly related.  However, many people simply took their surname from the area in which they lived (e.g., Wauchopedale of the Lindsay family in Dumfriesshire), or from the “clan?they identified with (e.g., Clan Johnstone), or had the name ascribed to them by their neighbors.  For example, Waugh referring to a native Strathclyde Briton or a “foreigner?from Wales.  The name Wallace is thought to be so derived.  Bach in Welsh referring to someone “little?or “small?in stature.  The name Vaughan is thought to be so derived.  In addition, it is known there are Baughs with German roots (Bach meaning “stream?or “brook? and Bau meaning “den?.  However, some have suggested that modern people with the surname Wauchope and its various spellings (e.g., Walkup, Waughop, and Wachob) are related to the Wauchopes of Niddrie-Merschell, as it was the only major aristocratic branch of the family left beyond about the fourteenth century.  The name of Wauchope is not found today in the area of Wauchopedale of the Lindsays, but Waugh still is.  The results of the Wauchope Surname DNA Study now underway indicate that there are several unrelated male lines.

Spelling United States United Kingdom Australia
Wachob 512 N/A N/A
Walkup 2,787 41 N/A
Wauchope 194 N/A 253
Waugh 11,052 5,175 1,701

The word clan originally meant, in Gaelic, offspring or descendants, family or tribe.  Originally a family unit, the clan became the basic political, economic, and social unit of the Scottish Highlands until the political oppression of 1745.  (The Highlands is that portion of Scotland that lies north of a line roughly between Glasgow and Edinburgh.)  Each clan has its own tartan that was worn in a kilt or scarf.  They were fiercely loyal to the family group and are quick to avenge any wrongs done to their fellows, as well as defending the area they considered home territory.  Most Scots-Norman families were not considered proper clans.  The Wauchopes are not currently found listed as a true clan.  However, they are armigerous, with the Chief of the Name having the right to bear a Coat of Arms.  Similarly, the Wauchopes are not found listed as a sept of any other more powerful clan either.  A sept is a family not having the name of the clan, but associated with the clan and entitled to wear its tartan.

The surname Wauchope is found on Page 438 of Volume 2 of Hanna’s The Scotch-Irish in the list of Border Clans and Chiefs in 1590 in Annandale, principally Dumfriesshire (It is listed as such on commercially available family scrolls as well).  Through examination of the original records, it has been pointed out to the author that this reference is actually for the Lindsays of Wauchope.  

Being Lowlanders, the Wauchopes did not have a tartan of their own, and in fact probably rarely would have had reason to wear one (i.e., the author has been told that they wore pants).  However, if so desired, it would be proper to wear the tartan of the present-day district from which your Wauchope ancestor came from (e.g., Edinburgh, Galloway, or Roxburgh), or the Scottish National Tartan.

The commercially available family scrolls give an adequate general background of a surname from fairly widely available sources.  At least one inaccuracy may be found on the typical Walkup scroll.  On some older scrolls the shield found at the top of the scroll in not correct.  The shield presented is actually that of what is evidently the cadet line of Waugh of Larkhall, not the main line of Wauchope of Niddrie-Merschell.  The error is in that the wheat sheaf and the fleur-de-lis are transposed (i.e., the sheaf should be on the bottom).  Refer to Selected Shields for the proper layout.  

The younger sons of the laird might well marry tenants or become tenants of the father’s estates.  In later years younger children of such tenants could marry more humble members of the community.  The original headstone of James Walkup (d. 1798) of the Carolinas has a shield with a wheat garb on it, which would lead one to believe that the Samuel and Nancy Wauchope line of the USA is indeed of the Niddrie Wauchopes.  Recent Y-DNA test results do not confirm this relationship via the male line.

The tragedy lies in the oral nature of the tradition.  Once the patriarchal society disappeared in Scotland, one’s lineage was of little use or interest.  It was of even less importance to the emigrant of the New World where culture and society had nothing to do with one’s forebears.  In ancient times genealogy was the cornerstone of Gaelic culture. “Who are you from??was more important than “where.?nbsp; All Gaels were completely familiar with their own ancestry and the subject was one of the most frequent topics of conversation on cold winter evenings.  (Adapted from “Descendants of King Robert Bruce,?The Highlander, Vol. 40, No. 1, Jan./Feb. 2002, James Irvin Robertson.)

A good rule of thumb is...
35 years for father to son
30 years for mother to daughter



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This page last updated March 18, 2018